Perseus tetradrachm

Perseus, the last Macedonian king, succeeded his father, Philip V, in 179 B.C.

From the beginning he was careful in securing allies against his greatest threat, Eumenes II of Pergamon. He renewed a treaty with Rome, which treated him as an ally until Eumenes convinced Rome to declare war against Perseus in 171 B.C.

The conflict dragged on for three years, until the Roman commander, Aemilius Paullus, confronted Perseus at Pydna in Macedonia, where the Macedonian army was slaughtered. Perseus eventually surrendered to the Romans and died in captivity in Rome.

Macedonia was divided into four powerless republics, and the kingdom of Alexander the Great ceased to exist.