Romans defeated by the Gauls under Brennus at the Battle of Allia. Gauls sack Rome, only the Capitol is defended by the citizenry (Quinctilis).
||CARTHAGE & ROME: TREATIES, PUNIC WARS, HANNIBAL||
|814||The traditional date for the founding of Carthage by Elissa (Dido), sister of the King of Tyre.|
|800?||First Phoenician presence on Sardinia.|
|770||Founding of Gadir, gateway to Spanish silver.|
|753||Traditional date for the founding of Rome by Romulus.|
|c750||Carthaginian domination of the Western seas.|
|c734||Syracuse settled by Corinthians led by the aristocrat Archias.|
|654||Carthage founds colony in the Balearic Islands at Ibiza.|
|600||Carthage fails to prevent Phocaean Greek colony at Massilia (Marseilles).|
|c581||Acragas (Agrigentum) founded by Greek colonists from Gela|
|580||First attempt by Greeks to drive Phoenicians out of Sicily.|
|574||Tyre falls to Nebuchadnezzar. Carthage rises to prominence among the Phoenician cities in the West.|
|550||Magonid dynasty founded in Carthage. Carthage allies with the Etruscans against the Greeks. Carthaginian force led by Malchus defeats Greeks in Sicily, but is vanquished in Sardinia. Malchus banished, marches on Carthage, is caught and executed.||Carthaginian colonies formed along coast of Africa, Algeria, Hadrumetum, Leptis.|
|540||The Carthaginians prevent a Greek attempt to land in Corsica.||Etruscan-Carthaginian coalition against Phocaeans of Corsica - naval battle of the Sardinian Sea - in consequence, Etruscans establish control of Corsica, and Carthage takes first steps towards conquest of Sardinia|
|539||Asian Phoenicia falls to Cyrus the Great of Persia.|
|535||Carthage, with Etruscans, destroys Phocaean colony in Corsica and closes Sardinia-Corsica off to the Greeks.|
|510||Dorieus, a Spartan prince, is expelled from Tripolitania.||Expulsion of the last Tarquinian king, Tarquinius Superbus. Brutus liberates Rome. Establishment of a Republic headed by two magistrates (later called consuls) elected annually|
|c504||Sardinia conquered by the Carthaginians: the campaigns of the Magonids|
|509||The first treaty between Carthage and Rome|
|479-450||Carthage conquers most of Tunisia. Colonies in North Africa founded or strengthened. Mago's expedition across the Sahara.|
|498||Hippocrates and Theron seize control in Syracuse and attempt to throw Phoenicians off western part of the island.|
|491||Battle of Halorus: Syracuse and Carthage fighting|
|485||Gelon ruler of Syracuse (485 to 478)|
|480||Alliance with Persia (Xerxes) fails to destroy Greeks, military defeat in Sicily as fleet is cut off by superior Athenian forces. Decisive battle at Himera in Sicily between Greeks led by Gelon and Carthage (at the same time as Thermopylae) - Hamilcar is defeated and commits suicide on the battlefield. Hamilcar's son, Hanno 'the Navigator continues the dynasty.||Second Persian war: battles of Thermopylae and Salamis; followed by battles of Plataea and Mykale (479), which conclude the war|
|449 or 446||Defeat of the Latins at the battle of Lake Regillus|
|454-453||Periclean age in Athens (447-432). Athens, on the initiative of Pericles, attempts to establish a footing in southern Italy and Sicily|
|431-421||First phase of the Peloponnesian war between Athens and Sparta (Archidamian war)||Plato is born (429)|
|415-413||Syracusans survived a long siege by the Athenians that took place during the Peloponnesian War, ultimately destroying the Athenian invasion force in Sicily and weakening Athenian power in Greece itself.|
|410||Hannibal (son of Gisco and grandson of Hamilcar) is the 'king' of Carthage. Phoenicians in Spain join with Celtiberians to secede from Carthage, denying the state important silver and copper revenues. Overland tin trade cut off. Himilco's expeditions in the Atlantic. Hanno's expeditions to Morocco and Senegal. The Sicilian city of Segesta asks for Carthaginian aid against the Greek city of Selinius|
|409||Hannibal initiates attempts to conquer Sicily. Hannibal, takes the fortified towns of Selinus (ally of Syracuse) and Himera by use of siege towers.|
|406||City of Agrigentum, in southern Sicily, falls in December to Hannibal the Elder and is ravaged.||Romans at war with the Veii|
|Hannibal and hundreds of troops die in epidemic outside fortified town of Acragas. Himilco, his cousin, takes over command, is defeated by a force out of Syracuse, and has supply disrupted in naval action. Syracusan forces strengthen garrison. Carthaginian squadron breaks through Greek blockade -- the besieged escape under cover of night, Punic forces collect spoils. Himilco takes town of Gela, defeating Syracusan force, then takes town of Camarina.||Dionysius takes power in Syracuse|
marches on Syracuse.
Peace treaty between Carthage and Syracuse is signed after Carthaginian troops are ravaged by plague and cannot conquer Syracuse. Syracuse grants control of most of Sicily and must pay tribute to Carthage. Treaty confirms Dionysius I as dictator (tyrannos) of Syracuse. First Sicilian War concluded.
|413-404||Last phase of Peloponnesian war and final defeat of Athens by the Spartans and Persians|
|398||Dionysius breaks the treaty and sacks Motya -- Carthaginians permanently relocate main Sicilian base to fortified town of Lilybaeum.||Death of Socrates (399)|
|397||Himilco drives Dionysius back to Syracuse and resumes siege. In naval action, sinks or boards 100 Syracusan naval vessels and takes 20,000 prisoners.|
|396||Epidemic lays Punic forces low for a third time in Sicily. Dionysius capitalizes and defeats Himilco in pitched battle. He survives, but upon return to Carthage in disgrace, starves himself to death. Fighting continues under his successor Mago, nephew of Himilco,||Romans take and destroy Veii.|
|393||Carthaginian force under Mago defeated trying to re-take Messana.|
|392||Mago defeated a second time. Truce signed.|
|390||Camillus (Dictator). Capture of Rome by the Gauls||Gallic incursions in central Italy and along the Adriatic coast|
|382/3||The third of the Carthaginian wars on Sicily breaks outbetween Dionysius and Carthage in alliance with Italiote cities and Lucani -Archytas' Italiote league, but this time the battle includes the land in the south of Italy which Dionysius had brought under his control.|
|378||Mago falls in the Battle of Cronion, in southen Italy fighting the Syracusan army. Carthage and Syracuse agree a peace.||Servian Wall built around Rome, 10 kilometres in length.|
|375||Carthage defeated at Cabala -- Mago and 10,000 soldiers killed. Mago's son Himilco defeats Dionysius near Himera -- truce favorable to Carthage concluded. Himilco dies of the plague. End of the Magonid dynasty - succeeded by Hanno the Great.|
Dionysius attacks Carthaginian base at Lilybaeum -- stopped when fleet
defeated by warships under Hanno the Great.
|First Plebeian elected Consul.|
|350s?||Hanno the Great crucified following unsuccessful attempt to usurp power from the Council of Elders.||356 Philip of Macedon begins expansionist policy in Greece|
|348||Carthage is the leading Western power.||Rome agrees to second treaty with Carthage.|
|345||Mago sails to Syracuse to drive out the usurper. Greeks receive support from Timoleon in Corinth who drives the Carthaginians out. The Carthaginian commander Mago commits suicide in order to avoid court martial upon his return.|
Hasdrubal and Hamilcar make a second
attempt, losing a battle at Segesta (Battle
of Crimisus). Hasdrubal is
|Adhesion of Capua to Rome. In the face of agression by the Bruttian League Tarentum appealed for aid against the barbarian to its mother city Sparta.||Samnites attack Sidicni and Campanians. First Samnite War begins (343-341).|
|341||Carthaginian embassy to Rome.||Sidicini and Campanians ally with Latins and Volsci. First Samnite War ends - Romans occupy northern Campania .|
|340||Power struggle in Syracuse ends with Timoleon of Corinth victorious.||Rome confiscates Latin and Privernate land and ager Falernus.||Latin
War (340-338) begins.
|339||Timoleon wins in battle with the Carthaginians at Krimisos.||
|338||Capua is granted civitas sine suffragio. responded and King Archidamus of Sparta headed an expedition to southern Italy that fails disastrously: the king is killed in battle with the Lucanians.||
Latin War ends - Latin League dissolved.
Battle of Chaeronea and imposition of Macedonian dominion on Greece
|336||Death of Philip and accession of Alexander the Great|
|334||Carthage makes peace with the Greek empire and with the Lagos monarchy in Egypt.||Cales is the first Latin colony founded by Rome. Alexander the Great's uncle Alexander 'the Molossian' of Epirus answered the call of the western Greeks in southern Italy.||Alexander the Great of Macedon begins his eastward campaign to conquer the Eastern World. (334-323)|
|c. 333-330||Campaigns of Alexander of Molossia in southern Italy|
|330||Agathocles comes to power in Syracuse.||Alexander 'the Molossian' is assassinated.|
|328||Foundation of Fregellae|
|327||Second Samnite Was (327-304) begins. Appeal of Neapolis to Rome|
|323||Alexander the Great dies.|
|321||Battle of the Caudine Forks; Roman army forced to surrender to the Samnites.|
|315||Agathocles of Syracuse takes Messana.||315-314 Acrotatus of Sparta's Sicilian expedition||Rome suffered a crushing defeat at Lautulae.|
|312||Censorship of Appius Claudius/ Construction begins on the via Appia and the aqua Appia (Rome's first aqueduct). First issue of silver coinage by Rome|
|311||Agathocles, Syracuse's latest tyrant, lays siege to Acragas and crosses the Halcyus, violating the peace treaty. Gisco's son Hamilcar defeats Agathocles at Ecnomus||Etruscan Wars (311-308)|
|310||Carthaginian force under Hamilcar, grandson of Hanno the Great defeats Greek force at Himera. Siege of Syracuse begins.|
|309||Agathocles, rather than stay in Syracuse to fend off a Carthaginian siege, invades North Africa (but has to abandon his army there in 307). Carthage meets Agathocles' force of 14,000 with 40,000 foot, 1000 cavalry and 2000 chariots under Bomilcar and Hanno. Greeks are victorious, Carthage losing 3000 on the battlefield, but city is impregnable. Siege of Syracuse continues.|
|308||Carthage reverted partly back to its old ways, sacrificing 300 children of noble birth. Bomilcar tries to make himself dictator in Carthage. Is defeated and tortured to death.||Greeks form local allies -- Egypt contributes 10,000. Greeks control Tunisian province and fighting continues.|
|307||While Agathocles oversees events in Syracuse, Carthage defeats the Greek and allied forces. Despite Syracusan reinforcement, Greek cause in Africa is doomed. Greeks desert to Carthaginian commanders Hanno and Himilco in vast numbers. Treaty favorable to Carthage concluded. Greek victory outside Syracuse. Hamilcar captured and killed.|
|306||Treaty between Carthage and Rome to counter pact between Etruscans and Syracuse.|
|304||Second Samnite War ends.|
|303-302||Cleonymus of Sparta's southern Italian expedition: he makes an alliance with Tarenturn against the Lucanians|
|302||Roman intervention to prevent the unrest at Arretium in Etruria and Carseoli amnog the Aequi|
|300||Agathocles intervenes in southern Italy: takes Corcyra, forces alliance with Bruttii, then defeated by them. Pytheas explores the Atlantic, Euthymenes the coasts of Africa.||Lex Ogulnia: plebeians admitted to priestly offices|
|299||Conquest of Narnia.||Gallic raid on Etruria.|
|298||Third Samnite War (298-290) begins. Rome captures Bovanium Vetus and Aufidena|
|296||Bronze statue group of Romulus and Remus set up.|
|295||Agathocles secures Croton, alliances with Iapygians and Peucetians.||Roman
victory over Samnites, Etruscians, Gauls and Umbrians at Sentinum;
Decius Mus, a Roman general, commits devotio (sacrifice oneself to help
your army). The other Roman general present was Fabius Rullianus.
Major defeat of Sulla at Camerinum by the Samnites and Gauls
|294||Samnite victory near Luceria|
|293||Cult of Aesculapius brought to Rome.||Roman victory over Samnites at Aquilona.|
|292||Falerii conquered Temple of Aesculapius dedicated on the Tiber Island in Rome on January 1.|
Rome defeats the Samnites, ending the 3rd Samnite War - Sabines granted limited Roman citizenship - Roman domination of central Italy is complete.
|289||Death of Agathocles. Pre-war division of Sicily resumes. 3rd Sicilian War ends.||Mint and triumviri monetales established.|
|288?||Mamertines settle in Messana.|
Archimedes, Greek mathematician, physicist and inventor. 287-212BC
|284||Agathocles' Campanian mercenaries found the state of the Mamertines at Messina||Revolt of Vulci, Volsinii, Samnites and Lucanians.|
|283||Leg. C. Fabricius Luscinus sent to allies on news of Tarentine hostility, arrested.||Boii defeated at Lake Vadimo|
campaign in south:
||Rome conquers territory still held by the Gauls along the Adriatic||
Thurii, located on the Gulf of Taranto, asked for help from Rome after having been attacked by Lucania. Roman Fleet attacked by Tarentum. L. Postumius Megellus dispatched to Tarentum, insulted. Tarentines force withdrawal of Romans from Thurii.
|281||Aemilius campaigns in Samnium, invades Tarentine territory. Aemilius offers negotiations with Tarentines, who appeal to Pyrrhus of Epirus , relative of Alexander the Great.|
|280||Achaean League reconstituted.
Decius uses his Campanian troops to take Rhegium.
Invasion of Italy by Pyrrhus on behalf of Greek city-states. Defeats Romans at the Battle of Heraclea but with great loss to his own troops. This is the first time elephants are used in Italy as instruments of war.
|279||Carthaginians were besieging Syracuse, which invites Pyrrhus of Epirus to lead war against Carthage.||Romans
defeated by Pyrrhus at the Battle of Asculum.
Real 'Pyrrhic victory' (costly win).
Pyrrhus' offer of a truce is rejected by Rome. Pyrrhus tires of his agreement to assist Tarantum and leaves to answer invitation from Sicily, to come and fight there.
(?) treaty between Rome and Carthage (against
Pyrrhus invades Sicily, defeats Carthaginians, leaving Lilybaeum as the only remaining stronghold.
|277||277? Carthage sinks 70 of Pyrrhus' 110 ships and Pyrrhus gives up the war in Sicily.||Consuls
suffer defeat at M. Cranita in Samnium.
Rufinus captures Croton and Locri.
|276||Fabius celebrates triumph over Samnites, Lucanians, Bruttians. - Pyrrhus returns to Italy.|
(Hiero) becomes tyrant of Syracuse.
Hiero defeated by Mamertines of Messana - Pyrrhus's old enemies (275/4 or 270/69?).
|Q. Fabius Maximus born; nicknamed Verrucosus and Ovicula||
is defeated near Malventum (original
name, changed to Beneventum). Romans
led by M. Curius Dentatus. Pyrrhus
leaves Italy for good & return to Epirus in Greece.
|274||The remaining troops which Pyrrhus left at the Tarentum garrison now leave to return home to Epirus.|
|273||Embassy of amity by the Macedonian king of Egypt in Rome.||The Romans and their allies conquer the Etruscan city of Caere|
fleet appears off Tarentum.
||Pyrrhus is killed in a fight in the streets of Argos (south of Corinth in Greece) and he is killed when he is hit in the head by a roof-tile before he can begin his second invasion of Sicily.||
The Magna Grecia cities of Velia,
Heraclea, Thurii & Metapontum all become Rome’s allies this
year. Locri & Croton may have become allied this year or shortly
before now. The dates are uncertain.
|271||Genucius probaby begins operations against Rhegium.|
|270||Hiero of Syracuse defeats Mamertines at Longanus (270?).||M' Curius Dentatus dies||In Rhegium a group of tribal mercenaries had taken over the town, posing one more threat to the completion of the Magna Grecia campaigns. Rome retakes Rhegium.|
|269||First silver coinage minted in Rome|
|268||Picentes conquered and granted limited citizenship|
|267||War with Sallentini. Capture of Brundisium|
|266||Conquest of Italy to the Rubicon River completed Apulia and Messapia reduced to alliance|
|265||Hiero proclaimed king
Carthage installs garrison at Messana at request of Mamertines.
|265-264 Roman intervention to suppress unrest at Volsinii, the last free Etruscan city. The city is destroyed.|
|264-241||First Punic War (264-241)|
| First Punic War | Between the First and Second Punic Wars | Second Punic War | Between the Second and Third Punic Wars | The Third Punic War and after (until the death of Scipio Aemilianus)
Various sources, including: http://www.geocities.com/~stilicho/225.html | http://web.idirect.com/~atrium/rresources.html
Continue...First Punic War